Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that concerned with the all components of the immune system, immunity from disease, the immune response, and immunologic techniques of analysis.
Cellular microbiology means Cooperation and mutual dependency between microbiology and cell biology. In cellular microbiology pathogenic microbes are used as a tool for cell biology research. It mainly focuses on the host cell responses obtained by the interaction of micro-organisms.
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The immune system is made up of different types of cells, tissues and
organs that protect the body from germs, microorganisms and infections; it also
destroys infected and malignant cells, and removes cellular debris. The immune
system keeps people healthy and preventing infections. The major components of immune system are
Lymph nodes, Spleen, Thymus, Bone Marrow, Lymphocytes (B Lymphocytes, T
Immune system mainly classified into two types those are Innate Immune system (Humoral Immune system), Adaptive Immune System(Cell-mediated Immune System). Innate immune system performs defence mechanism immediately when antigen appearance in the body and adaptive immune system is known as antigen-specific immune system. Both immune systems consist of humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components.
If immune system does not function properly then leads to life-threatening infections. Mainly immune system disorders are classified into four types such as immunodeficiency disorders, autoimmune disorders, allergic disorders and cancer.
Immunogenetics is a branch of immunology. It concerned with the role of genetic components controlling the immune response and the transmission from one generation to other generation. Mainly it identifies immune defects due to genetic mutation. Immunogenetics helps to find new effective therapeutic approaches for immune diseases.
Interferons are group of glycoproteins that are produced by cells exposed to disease-causing agents, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and also tumor cells. They accelerate functions of immune cells such as natural killer cells and macrophages. Interferons are many types but majorly these are two types that are: Type-I interferon and Type-II interferon. IFN-α(alpha), IFN-β(beta), IFN-ε(tau), IFN-κ and IFN-ω(omega) all are type-I interferons and IFN-γ(gamma) is belongs to Type-II interferon.
Type-I interferons are produced by almost every cell in the host and these are prohibited by Interleukin-10. Type-II interferonS are produced only by specialised immune cells known as T lymphocytes and natural killer cells and it is activated by Interleukin-12.
Adaptive immunity is also known as specific or acquired immunity. Adaptive immunity not present at the time of birth. Adaptive immunity generates immunological memory, and it improves the further response to specific antigen. Immunological memory available in the form of either passive memory or active memory, in passive memory no development of immune response take place only delivery of antibodies but in active memory development of immune response take place by activation of T and B cells or by vaccination.